For the first time ever Emperor Penguins were counted from space. The Emperor Penguin census done using satellite images showed that there were twice as many Emperor Penguins than previously thought (source). Taking pictures of penguins from space was previously possible, but not the high enough resolution to differentiate penguins from other objects like was now possible.
The study used images from 2009 and found there to be about 595,000 penguins (previous estimates were between 270,000 and 350,000). The images also allowed them to identify 7 new colonies, so there are now 44 known colonies of Emperor Penguins in Antarctica.